Biomechanics

Date:         Wed, 21 Sep 1994 17:13:45 -0500
Reply-To:     craig mcdonald <crmcdona@NICKEL.UCS.INDIANA.EDU>
Sender:       Biomechanics and Movement Science listserver
              <BIOMCH-L@HEARN.BITNET>
From:         craig mcdonald <crmcdona@NICKEL.UCS.INDIANA.EDU>
Subject:      Undergrad Syllabus summary (1770 lines)
Comments: To: biomch-l%hearn.BITNET@RICEVM1.RICE.EDU
 
Hello:
 
Here are the responses I received for an undergrad syllabus.  I've
tried to clean up the formatting, etc. but there may be a few spots I
missed.  Hopefully the editor I've used will allow you to see the
results.  I've separated the responses with ------s.
 
I think you will find a number of new ideas and references that could
be incorporated into the classes you teach.  I also left in the
grading standards for comparison along with other misc information.
 
Thanks to all who responded.  Any late arrivals will be posted.
One syllabus was being sent my regular postal mail.
 
Craig
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
>From MWHITTLE@UTCVM.UTC.EDU Sat Sep 10 12:50:08 1994
 
This is a junior level undergraduate course for students pursuing
a bachelors degree in physical therapy.  They have already
completed at college-level courses in physics, trigonometry, gross
anatomy and physiology.
 
Michael W. Whittle, M.D., Ph.D.
Cline Chair of Rehabilitation Technology
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
 
PHYT314 - KINESIOLOGY
 
Course description:  An introduction to kinesiology through the
study of biomechanics, including statics and dynamics, joint
kinematics, and related aspects of muscle mechanics and physiology.
Emphasis is on the importance of mechanical principles in relation
to analysis of the human body at rest and in motion, in both normal
and selected pathological conditions.
 
Required reading:
1.  Norkin, C. and Levangie, P. (1983): Joint structure and
function: a comprehensive analysis.  Philadelphia: F.A. Davis
Company.
2.  Whittle, M.W. (1991): Gait analysis: an introduction.  Oxford:
Butterworth-Heinemann.
 
Topic 1: Introduction and review of relevant mathematics
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Explain the place of kinesiology within the discipline of biomechanics.
2.  Use Pythagoras theorem to calculate the length of the unknown side of a
    right triangle.
3.  Use sines, cosines and tangents to calculate the unknown anglesin a right
    triangle.
4.  Use sines, cosines and tangents to calculate the lengths of the unknown
    sides of a right triangle.
5.  Use the sine formula and the cosine formula to find unknown angles and
    side lengths in triangles of any shape.
6.  Resolve vectors into components.
7.  Reconstruct vectors from their components.
8.  Add and subtract vectors. 9.  Perform calculations using the relevant
    Systeme International (SI) units of scientific measurement.
 
Topic 2: Biomechanics
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Define the terminology used in biomechanics, including kinetics,
    kinematics, statics, dynamics, displacement, velocity,
    acceleration, scalar and vector.
2.  Name the three components of a force, and explain the
    difference between internal and external forces.
3.  State Newton's three laws and explain the concept of action and
    reaction.
4.  Show how Newton's laws lead to concept of the balance of
    forces.
5.  Describe inertia and gravity, and explain the relationship
    between mass and weight.
6.  Describe the concept of center of gravity, and explain how its
    position can be determined in various objects.
7.  Explain the relationship between stability, center of gravity
    and area of support.
8.  Explain the concept of friction and how to calculate the
    magnitude of the parallel force.
9.  Explain what is meant by "degrees of freedom".
10.  Describe the how the moment of force is calculated from the
    force and the perpendicular distance.
11.  Describe the three types of lever and the concept of
    mechanical advantage.
12.  Explain the concept of the balance of moments.
13.  Describe static, dynamic, stable and unstable equilibrium.
14.  Calculate the unknown force in a system, by balancing forces
     and moments.
15.  Describe how anatomic pulleys may change action line, moment
     arm, and torque of muscles passing them.
16.  Describe the types of lever found in the body, and the
     relationship between effort and resistance forces in concentric and
     eccentric contraction.
17.  Explain why the biomechanical efficiency of muscles changes
     through a joint's range of motion.
18.  Define energy, work and power, and distinguish between
     potential and kinetic energy.
 
Topic 3: Joint structure and function
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Describe the structures by which joints achieve the two
    cardinal requirements of stability and mobility.
2.  Explain the difference between tension, compression and shear
    stresses.
3.  Explain the difference between stress and strain and the units
    in which they are measured.
4.  Describe the mechanical properties of bone, ligament, tendon,
    hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage, in terms of their ability to
    resist and transmit stress.
5.  Describe the structure of the joint capsule and the properties
    of synovial fluid.
6.  Classify the different types of joint.
7.  Classify synovial joints, based on the number of axes about
    which motion takes place.
8.  Explain the concept of a kinematic chain, and differentiate
    between open and closed chains.
9.  Differentiate between the three types of joint surface motion:
    spin, roll and slide.
10.  Explain the concept of joint congruency and the difference
     between close-packed and loose-packed positions.
11.  Explain how actual joint motion consists primarily of only
     one, two or three of the possible six degrees of freedom.
12.  Relate the concept of joint stability to the functions of the
     different joint structures.
13.  Explain the difference between the ideal situation and the
     real life situation in terms of muscle lever arms, muscle forces
     and joint forces.
 
Topic 4: Muscle structure and function
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  State the function of muscles.
2.  Explain the terms concentric, isometric, eccentric, isotonic
    and isokinetic.
3.  Explain the difference between anaerobic and anaerobic
    contraction.
4.  Describe the process of muscle fatigue, including the systems
    which may be affected.
5.  Describe the motor unit, differentiate three types of muscle
    fiber, and explain how fiber type is determined.
6.  State the difference between tonic and phasic muscles.
7.  Describe the processes of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy.
8.  Explain the muscle tension/length relationship, and how it is
    responsible for active and passive insufficiency.
9.  Explain the difference between single-joint and multiple-joint
    muscles, with respect to active and passive insufficiency, and with
    respect to their actions at the joints they cross.
10.  Explain how maximum force depends on velocity, in eccentric,
     isometric and concentric contraction.
11.  Describe the factors affecting maximal joint torque.
12.  Explain the terms agonist, antagonist, co-contraction and
     synergist, and explain synergistic contraction.
13.  Explain why contraction of a single muscle will seldom produce
     the desired affect, so that synergists are almost always needed.
14.  Describe the ways in which textbook descriptions often fail to
     describe muscle activity in the "real world".
 
Topic 5: The elbow and forearm
 
After completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Describe the articulating surfaces of the humeroulnar and
    humeroradial joints.
2.  List the ligaments associated with the elbow complex.
3.  Describe the type of motion which occurs at the elbow joint,
    the axis of rotation, the close-packed position, and the factors
    responsible for stability.
4.  List the muscles which cross the elbow joint, stating what
    other joints they also cross.
5.  State the muscles responsible for flexion and extension of the
    elbow.
6.  Describe radioulnar separation at full extension.
7.  Explain why the elbow joint is limited in extension, but has a
    good range of flexion.
8.  Describe the carrying angle, noting the gender difference, and
    say what happens to the carrying angle during flexion.
9.  Explain how the roles of the biceps and brachioradialis as
    flexors change with pronation and supination.
10.  Describe the articulations of the superior and inferior
     radioulnar joints.
11.  Describe the ligaments of the radioulnar joints and the
     factors responsible for stability.
12.  Describe how the two radioulnar joints combine to make a hinge
     with a single axis of rotation; describe the motions and the axis
     about which they occur.
13.  List the muscles responsible for pronation and supination.
14.  Explain how the roles of the biceps and brachioradialis in
     pronation and supination change with the position of the elbow and
     radioulnar joints.
15.  Explain the role of the interosseous membrane.
16.  Explain what happens at the radiohumeral and radioulnar joints
     during pronation.
 
Topic 6: The shoulder complex
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Name the muscles connecting the trunk to the scapula, the trunk
    to the arm and the scapula to the arm.
2.  Describe the articular surfaces and ligaments of the
    sternoclavicular joint.
3.  Describe the movements which take place at the sternoclavicular
    joint, and the factors responsible for stability.
4.  Describe the articular surfaces and ligaments of the
    acromioclavicular joint.
5.  Describe the movements which take place at the
    acromioclavicular joint, and the factors responsible for stability.
6.  Describe the structures which form the scapulothoracic
    mechanism and the factors responsible for stability.
7.  Describe the movements which take place between the chest wall
    and the scapula, the alternative names for those movements, and the
    secondary movements which accompany the main ones.
8.  Describe the muscles (and other forces) which produce downward
    scapular rotation and upward scapular rotation.
9.  Describe the muscles (and other forces) which produce scapular
    elevation and scapular depression.
10.  Describe the muscles which produce scapular protraction and
     retraction.
11.  Explain why motion of the scapula always occurs as part of a
     closed kinetic chain.
12.  Describe the scapulohumeral rhythm.
13.  Describe the articular surfaces and ligaments of the
     glenohumeral joint.
14.  Describe the movements which take place at the glenohumeral
     joint, and the type of joint surface movement.
15.  List the muscles which produce abduction and adduction of the
     arm.
16.  List the muscles which produce flexion and extension of the
     arm.
17.  List the muscles which produce internal and external rotation
     of the arm.
18.  Explain how the shoulder is normally prevented from subluxing
     due to gravity, and how this mechanism may be disrupted following
     a stroke.
19.  Explain what is meant by humeral retroversion.
20.  Explain how the coracoacromial arch prevents upward
     subluxation of the shoulder.
21.  Name, and describe the functions of, the rotator cuff muscles,
     particularly with regard to their role in abduction of the arm.
22.  Describe how the design of the shoulder reconciles a number of
     conflicting requirements.
 
Topic 7: Spine and posture
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Describe the curves of the vertebral column using appropriate
    terminology.
2.  List the articulations, major ligaments and structural
    components of the vertebral column.
3.  Describe the intervertebral disc.
4.  Explain the regional characteristics of vertebral structure.
5.  Describe the motions of the vertebral column as a whole.
6.  Describe the movements of the vertebrae in each region.
7.  Describe the movements of the ribs.
8.  Explain the lumbar-pelvic rhythm.
9.  Describe the lumbosacral junction and the conditions of
    spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.
10.  Analyze the effects of an increased lumbosacral angle on the
     pelvis and lumbar vertebral column.
11.  Describe the sacroiliac joint, the special nomenclature for
     flexion and extension of the sacrum, and the movements at this
     joint during childbirth.
12.  List the muscles of the vertebral column and give the specific
     functions of each.
13.  Distinguish between posture and balance, and state what is
     meant by static and dynamic postures.
14.  Explain how the standing posture is maintained by a balance
     control feedback loop.
15.  Explain postural sway in the standing position, and describe
     how small and large postural errors are corrected.
16.  Explain the relationship between the line of gravity and the
     joint centers in posture control.
17.  State what is meant by "optimal posture".
18.  Describe visual and scientific posture analysis.
19.  Describe the optimal posture in the sagittal plane, as it
     relates to the ankle, knee, hip, pelvis, lumbar, thoracic and
     cervical regions of the spine, and the head.
20.  Describe the optimal posture in the coronal plane, both above
     and below the hip joints.
21.  Describe the biomechanical consequences of the following
     abnormalities of posture: flexed knee, excessive pelvic tilt,
     valgus knee, varus knee, and scoliosis.
 
Topic 8: The wrist and hand complex
 
After completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Describe the articular surfaces, ligaments and stabilizing
factors for the radiocarpal joint.
2.  Describe the motions of the radiocarpal joint.
3.  Describe the articular surfaces, ligaments and stabilizing
factors for the midcarpal joint.
4.  Describe the motions of the midcarpal joint.
5.  List the muscles crossing the wrist joint and give their
functions.
6.  Describe the carpal tunnel syndrome.
7.  Explain the nomenclature used in the wrist and hand.
8.  Describe the articular surfaces, ligaments and stabilizing
factors for the carpo-metacarpal joints of the fingers and thumb.
9.  Describe the motions of the finger and thumb carpo-metacarpal
joints.
10.  Explain the nomenclature used for describing motions of the
thumb.
11.  Describe the articular surfaces, ligaments and stabilizing
factors for the metacarpo-phalangeal joints.
12.  Describe the motions of the metacarpo-phalangeal joints.
13.  List the muscles crossing the metacarpo-phalangeal joints and
give their functions.
14.  Describe the articular surfaces, ligaments and stabilizing
factors for the interphalangeal joints.
15.  Describe the motions of the interphalangeal joints.
16.  Explain the role of the interossei and lumbricals in producing
flexion, extension, adduction and abduction of the fingers.
17.  Explain how flexion or extension of the wrist affects the
strength of the fingers, through active and passive insufficiency.
18.  Explain how quadriplegics are able to achieve grasp through
tenodesis.
 
Topic 9: The hip complex
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Describe the articulating surfaces of the pelvis and femur.
2.  Describe the structure and function of the ligaments of the hip
joint.
3.  Describe the degrees of freedom of the hip joint and the type
of joint surface motion.
4.  Identify all of the muscles which cross the hip joint, and
state what other joints they cross.
5.  List the muscles which take a part in hip extension, flexion,
abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation.
6.  Distinguish between the mechanical and anatomical axes of the
femur.
7.  Explain what is meant by femoral neck anteversion and
retroversion, and femoral torsion.
8.  Differentiate between coxa vara and coxa valga, and explain
their importance in terms of bending moments and abductor lever
arms.
9.  Explain the movements of the hips and lumbar spine when lateral
pelvic tilt and anterior pelvic tilt occur in a closed kinematic
chain.
10.  Describe how the standing position is maintained in the
sagittal plane, and in the coronal plane when standing on both feet
and on one foot.
11.  Calculate the forces in the hip joint when standing on both
feet and on one foot.
12.  Describe Trendelenburg's sign.
13.  Describe the mechanical consequences of congenital dislocation
of the hip (CDH).
14.  Explain how the knee position affects the hip.
 
Topic 10: The knee complex
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Describe the articulating surfaces of the tibiofemoral and
patellofemoral joints.
2.  Describe the ligaments of the knee.
3.  Describe the restraints to knee motion in flexion, extension,
abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation.
4.  Explain how the combined motion of rolling and sliding gives
the knee joint a shifting axis.
5.  Identify the muscles which cross the knee joint, and state what
other joints they cross.
6.  List the muscles which take a part in knee extension and
flexion.
7.  Explain how the hamstrings run into active and passive
insufficiency, depending on the hip and knee angles.
8.  Explain how the cruciate ligaments control knee kinematics by
acting as a four-bar linkage.
9.  Describe the screw-home mechanism of the knee.
10.  Define the "Q" angle and explain how it relates to the
physiological valgus angle and patellar dislocation.
11.  Explain the relationship between the location of the line of
loading and relative compartmental loading.
12.  Explain how the menisci reduce local stresses on the articular
surfaces by increasing the contact surface area.
13.  Calculate the force across the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral
joints during knee extension exercise.
14.  Explain how tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint forces vary
with knee angle during knee extension exercise.
15.  Describe how mathematical modelling can be used to calculate
knee joint forces during a particular activity.
 
Topic 11: The ankle-foot complex
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Define the terminology used in describing motions of the ankle-
foot complex, including inversion/eversion, pronation/supination,
dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, flexion/extension, adduction/abduction
and varus/valgus.
2.  Describe the articular surfaces of the ankle (talocrural)
joint.
3.  Explain the role of the tibiofibular joints and supporting
ligaments, and state what happens at these joints during ankle
dorsiflexion and plantarflexion.
4.  Describe the ligaments of the ankle joint, and the factors
responsible for the stability of the joint.
5.  Describe the axis of the ankle joint, the degrees of freedom
and the type of joint surface motion.
6.  Name the muscles crossing the ankle and subtalar joints, and
state what other joints they also cross.
7.  Describe the articular surfaces of the subtalar (talocalcaneal)
joint.
8.  Describe the ligaments of the subtalar joint, and the factors
responsible for the stability of the joint.
9.  Describe the axis of the subtalar joint, the degrees of freedom
and the type of joint surface motion.
10.  Name the muscles responsible for dorsiflexion, plantarflexion,
inversion and eversion about the ankle and subtalar joints.
11.  Explain why motion at the subtalar joint is accompanied by
motion at the talonavicular joint.
12.  Explain the relationship between tibial rotation and subtalar
inversion/eversion.
13.  Describe the structure and function of the plantar arches.
14.  Explain what is meant by the "metatarsal break".
15.  Explain the general function of the extrinsic and intrinsic
muscles of the foot.
16.  Describe hallux valgus and other common foot deformities.
 
Topic 12: Gait analysis
 
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
1.  Name the events of the gait cycle.
2.  Explain the timing of the gait cycle, in terms of single and
double support times.
3.  Describe the foot placement parameters.
4.  Define the general gait parameters and their units of
measurement.
5.  Describe angular excursion of hip, knee and ankle in the
sagittal plane during the gait cycle.
6.  List the times at which the major muscle groups are active
during the gait cycle.
7.  Show how muscular activity relates to the relationship between
the positions of the joints and the ground reaction force.
8.  Describe the way in which the energy cost of walking in normal
individuals is minimized by the six "determinants of gait".
9.  List three ways in which energy is used during walking, and two
ways of expressing energy usage.
10.  Describe simple methods of measuring the general gait
parameters, and a method of presenting the results.
11.  Explain how forces in the hip joint are minimized by lateral
trunk bending ("Trendelenburg gait").
12.  Explain why a patient with a painful hip should be advised to
use a cane in the opposite hand.
13.  Show how anterior trunk bending is able to compensate for
quadriceps paralysis.
14.  Show how posterior trunk bending is able to compensate for hip
extensor paralysis.
15.  Explain the relationship between hip flexion contracture and
increased lumbar lordosis.
16.  Describe what is meant by a "functional" leg length
discrepancy.
17.  Describe four compensations for functional leg length
discrepancy: circumduction, hip hiking, steppage and vaulting.
18.  List the varieties and causes of abnormal hip rotation.
19.  List the causes of excessive knee extension.
20.  List the causes of excessive knee flexion.
21.  Explain why anterior tibial weakness may cause both foot slap
and toe drag.
22.  List the causes of abnormal foot contact.
23.  Describe the gait pattern of insufficient push-off.
24.  Give the varieties and causes of an abnormal walking base.
25.  Differentiate between irregular and asymmetric rhythmic
disturbances.
26.  Describe the methods of gait analysis most appropriate for use
in a clinical setting.
27.  Describe the three main methods of measurement used in a
modern gait laboratory.
28.  Describe how clinical gait analysis can be used to improve the
management of a patient with cerebral palsy.
 
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>From jdufek@OREGON.UOREGON.EDU Sat Sep 10 16:37:36 1994
Attached is an outline from our UG biomechanics course--taught this past
summer in a 4-week period.  Student pre-reqs include math skills through
trig ( calculus recommended), at least one term of physics and two terms
of human anatomy (with cadaver dissection).  At this point, the students
have also completed a year of basic  biology and chemistry.
 
ALL  of our majors are required to take this class--they have an option
of advanced biomechanics classes following successful completion of this
course.  As well as the lecture material indicated in the outline,
students participate in a laboratory  section--2 hrs / week.
 
I hope this information is helpful.
 
--jd
 
 
                                UNIVERSITY OF OREGON
                     Department of Exercise and Movement Science
                                EMS 381 BIOMECHANICS
                            Course Outline:  Summer 1994
 
 
General Information
 
Instructor:             Dr. Janet Dufek
Office:                 171 Gerlinger Annex
Phone:                  346-3391
Office Hours:           10:00 - 11:00 MW or by appointment
Textbook:               Hall, S.J.  Basic Biomechanics.  St. Louis:
                        Mosby Year Book, 1991.
Lecture Meeting:        8:00-9:50 MUWH; 248 Gerlinger
 
Laboratory Instructors: Roger James & Jill Crussemeyer
Offices:                B52 Gerlinger Annex (Roger); 342 Gerlinger (Jill)
Phone:                  346-1033
Laboratory Meeting:     8:00-10:50 F; B52 Gerlinger Annex
 
Course Description
Mechanics applied to the analysis of human movement.  Emphasis on
developing abi lities to analyze movement skills quantitatively.  Pre-
or Co-requisites:  BI 311, 312,PH YS 201; MATH 111, 112 recommended.
 
Purpose and Objectives
The purpose of the course is to provide the student with the basic
knowledge nec essary to undertake a systematic biomechanical approach to
the analysis of human movement. In order to achieve this objective the
student will:
 
A.    Develop an appreciation of the scope and nature of biomechanics.
B.    Develop an understanding of the basic terms used to describe
linear and an gular motion (kinematics).
C.    Develop an understanding of the basic terms that determine motion
(kinetics).
D.    Develop the knowledge to explain and apply the linear and angular
forms of Newton's laws of motion.
E.    Develop an understanding of the various applications of internal
and external forces on the human body.
F.    Develop an understanding of the basic media components that affect
motion.
G.    Develop an understanding of the basic properties and structure of
bones as well as load characteristics.
H.    Develop an understanding of the basic properties, actions, types
and mechanical factors of muscle tissue.
 
Course Content & Tentative Schedule:
A.    INTRODUCTION: Ch 1 (June 20)
      1.    Overview of biomechanics
      2.    Problems to solve
 
B.    THE BASICS:  Ch 2 (June 21)
      1.    Terminology
      2.    Simple mechanical concepts
      3.    Use of vectors
 
C.    LINEAR MOVEMENT:  Ch 9 (June 22)
      1.    Linear kinematics
      2.    Projectile motion
      3.    Graphing techniques, derivative relationships
 
D.    ANGULAR MOVEMENT:  Ch 10 (June 23)
      1.    Angular kinematics
      2.    Relationships to linear kinematics
 
E.    LINEAR KINETICS:  Ch 11 (June 27-29)
      1.    Newton's laws
      2.    Linear kinetics
      3.    Friction
      4.    Impulse-Momentum
      5.    Work-energy
 
F.    BONES:  Ch 3 (June 29)
      1.    Properties and structure
      2.    Mechanical loads
 
      EXAMINATION I (June 30)
 
G.    ANGULAR KINETICS I:  Ch 12 (June 30-July 2)
      1.    Levers, torque
      2.    Equilibrium, stability
      3.    Center of gravity
 
H.    MUSCLE MECHANICS:  Ch 4 (July 5-6)
      1.    Properties, actions, types
      2.    Mechanical factors; force-velocity, length-tension
      3.    Muscular strength, power
 
I.    ANGULAR KINETICS II:  Ch 13 (July 7-12)
      1.    Newton's laws, angular analogues
      2.    Moment of inertia
      3.    Angular momentum
      4.    Rotational forces
 
J.    FLUID MECHANICS:  Ch 14 (July 13)
      1.    Buoyancy, lift, drag
      2.    Interactive effects (friction, spin, pressure)
 
      EXAMINATION II (July 14)
 
 
EVALUATION:
 
      Laboratory                                25 %
      Homework Problems and Quizzes             25 %
      Examination I                             25 %
      Examination II                            25 %
 
 
 
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
*  Janet S. Dufek, Ph.D.
*  Department of Exercise & Movement Science
*  1240 University of Oregon
*  Eugene, Oregon  97403-1240
*
*  Voice:  503-346-3391
*  FAX:  503-346-2841
*  Internet:  "jdufek@oregon.uoregon.edu"
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
DEPARTMENT OF KINESIOLOGY AND HEALTH EDUCATION
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
AUSTIN, TEXAS   78712
 
KIN 326K     KINESIOLOGY:  BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT
Fall 1993
 
Dr. Larry Abraham                   TEACHING ASSISTANT:  Dimitrios Kalakanis
OFFICE:   Bellmont 222J                 OFFICE:  Bellmont 844E
HOURS:    MWF 10-11am, or           HOURS:  TTH 12:30-1:30pm,
by appointment                          or by appointment
PHONE:    471-1273                      PHONE:  471-1273
 
 
        This course is designed to provide students with an understanding
of scientific analysis of movement.  We shall examine the physiological,
structural, and mechanical bases for human movement, with examples drawn
from sport and rehabilitation.  Laboratory sessions will deal with
theoretical and applied aspects of selected mechanical concepts.  Lectures
will concentrate on a scientific approach to mechanisms underlying human
movement.  The textbook for this course is:
 
Luttgens, Deutsch, & Hamilton.  KINESIOLOGY: Scientific Basis of Human
Motion  (8th edition)  1992
 
Students are to work all problems provided as unit problem sets.
Additional readings may be assigned from time to time and will be available
at the reserve desk of the Education Library (PCL) or at the Learning
Resources Center (LRC) in the Education Building.
 
        Three exams will cover lecture, textbook, and laboratory materials
as well as other assigned material for the first three quarters of the
semester.  A comprehensive final exam will review and synthesize material
from all parts of the course.  Laboratory assignments will be reviewed
weekly, and are to be compiled in notebooks which will be graded at the end
of the semester.
 
        Grading will be done by a point system.  The three regular exams
will be worth 50 points each.  The final exam will be worth 100 points.
The lab notebook will be worth a maximum of 50 points, including lab
participation and written assignments.  Final grades will be determined as
follows:
 
               A - 270 or more points
               B - 240-269 points
               C - 210-239 points
               D - 180-209 points
               F -  below 180 points
 
The course will follow the textbook closely; the back of this sheet
contains a rough schedule for this semester.
 KIN 326K               TENTATIVE COURSE SCHEDULE
FALL 1993
 
Abraham
Dates           Topic                                   Reading Assignment
                                                        (Textbook chapters)
8/25            Introduction
8/27-30         Skeletal System                                 1
9/1- 3          Muscle Function                                 2
9/8-10                   Neuromuscular Function                             3
9/13            Functional Unit Applications                    4-8
 
9/15            Review
9/17            First Exam
 
9/20            Biomechanical Measurement                        9
 
9/22-24         Linear Kinematics                                10
 
9/27            Angular Kinematics                               10
9/29-10/4       Force and Motion                                 11
 
10/6-8          Torque and Rotation                              12
10/11           Stability                                        13
10/13           Review
10/15           Second Exam
 
10/18 -20       Skill Analysis                                   14
 
10/22           Posture                                          15
 
10/25-27        Exercise Biomechanics                            16
 
10/29           Pushing and Pulling                              17
11/1-3          Throwing and Striking                            18
11/5            Review
11/8            Third Exam
 
11/10-15        Locomotion                                       19
 
11/17           Hydrodynamics                                    20
11/19-22        Flying                                           21
 
11/22           Impact                                           22
 
11/24           Developmental Patterns
11/29           Observational Analysis
12/1            Review
 
- - - - COMPREHENSIVE FINAL EXAM - -Wed.   12/8 - - - 9-12 noon - - - -
 
:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:=:
 
     This course requires application of mechanical principles of human
movement to real-life situations.  This approach requires a thorough
knowledge of the structure of the musculoskeletal system, as well as the
ability to use algebraic and trigonometric formulae which relate force and
motion.  Students without adequate preparation will be at a severe
disadvantage and should consult with the instructor about remedial steps
and alternative courses.  KIN 324K (Human Anatomy) is a prerequisite for
this course.  Math skills at the level of M305G or above are expected.
Students anticipating difficulty with mathematical aspects of this course
should consult the Learning Skills Center (Jester A332 - 471-3614).  These
people provide free help which can make a big difference.
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
>From mfeltner@pepvax.pepperdine.edu Mon Sep 12 10:48:07 1994
 
*************************************************************************
 
SPORTS MEDICINE 400
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY & KINESIOLOGY
WINTER, 1994
 
 
PROFESSOR:      Michael Feltner, Ph.D.
 
OFFICE:                 Heritage Hall 107
 
PHONE:                  (310) 456-4312
 
OFFICE HOURS:   Tuesday         10:00 - 10:50   HH 107
                        Wednesday       8:00 - 8:50  (by appointment)   HH 107
                                1:00 - 1:50     HH 107
                        Thursday        10:00 - 10:50   MSC 100
 
        Other times by appointment.  If I am not in my office (HH 107), then check the Biomechanics & Motor Behavior
        Laboratory (FFH 122).
 
TEACHING  ASSISTANT:    To be announced
 
TEXTBOOKS:      The following two textbooks are required:
 
Kinesiology and Applied Anatomy (7thEdition).  Rasch, P.J.,
Philadelphia:  Lea & Febiger, 1989.
 
Muscles: Testing and Function (4th Edition).  Kendall, F.P., McCreary,
E.K., & Provance, P.G. Baltimore: Williams &  Wilkins, 1993.
 
The following textbooks may be used to supplement the textbooks listed
above:
 
Principles of Human Anatomy.  Tortora, G.J. New York: Harper & Row, 1989
or 1992.
 
Color Atlas of Human Anatomy.  McMinn, R.M.H. & Hutchings, R.T.,
Chicago: Year Book Medical, 1988.
 
Anatomy Coloring Book.  Kapit, W. & Elson, L.M., New York:  Harper &
Row, 1977.
 
PREREQUISITES:   SPME 230 (Human Anatomy)     Mandatory, you must have
completed this course.
 
COREQUISITE:  The Physical Education class, Principles of Resistance
Training (PE 111), is a corequisite for SPME  400 and the two courses
have been structured to coincide with respect to content.  Material from
the PE 111 classes  will be included on your examinations in SPME 400.
 
ATTENDANCE:  I strongly suggest that you attend every class and
laboratory session.
 
LOCATION:       Lectures will meet in MSC 105. The laboratory classes
will meet in one of two places: MSC 105 or FFH 122.
 
TIME:   Lecture classes meet from 9:00 to 9:50 a.m. on Monday, Tuesday
and Thursday. Laboratory classes meet from either:      1:00 to 2:50
P.M. on Tuesday. or     3:00 to 4:50 P.M. on Tuesday.
 
GRADING:  In the semester, you will have 3 examinations and a final
examination.  Material from both the lecture and  laboratory sessions,
plus the PE 111 class, will be covered on each exam.  In addition to the
exams, your grade will be  based upon a Paper, a Laboratory Exam and
Laboratory assignments.
 
 
 
The percentage of each assignment is listed below:
 
                PERCENTAGE
 
        FINAL EXAM              30%
        LECTURE EXAM #1         16%
        LECTURE EXAM #2         16%
        LECTURE EXAM #3         16%
        PAPER                   12%
        LAB EXAM                 7%
        LABORATORY &
         MISCELLANEOUS ASSIGNMENTS       3%
        TOTAL           100%
 
 
     The final grade will be assigned according to the following
percentile scores:
 
        93.5    -           100 A
        90.0    -       93.49   A-
        87.5    -       89.99   B+
        82.5    -       87.49   B
        80.0    -       82.49   B-
        77.5    -       79.99   C+
        72.5    -       77.49   C
        70.0    -       72.49   C-
        67.5    -       69.99   D+
        62.5    -       67.49   D
        60.0    -       62.49   D-
        59.99 or below          F
 
 
MAKEUP EXAMS:  In order to take a makeup examination,  I must be
notified prior to the class in which the exam will  be administered.  At
this time, we will work out the necessary details.  If this procedure is
not followed, you will receive a 0  (ZERO) on the exam.
 
WITHDRAWAL:     The final date to withdraw from the class with a grade
of W is 3/2/94.         The final date to withdraw from the class with a
grade of WP or WF is 4/6/94.
 
If you withdraw from the class, notify me immediately.  You will receive
a grade of 0 for all work that is not completed until  I am notified
that you have dropped the class.  Any grades of 0 will be used to
compute your class average and to deternime  you WP/WF status.
 
INCOMPLETES:  They will be issued only in the case of an extreme
emergency.
 
EXTRA CREDIT:  There is none.  No exceptions.
 
 
 
LECTURE OUTLINE
DATE            TOPIC   READING ASSIGNMENT
1.      R       1/6     Introduction    K*:Ch.1,3-17; M#:Ch.1:1-8
2.      M       1/10    Introduction to Qualitative Analysis    K:Ch.15,247-251
Luttgens, K. & Wells, K.F. (1989). Appendix E,  "Anatomical Analysis" in
Kinesiology 7th Ed.   Dubuque: WC Brown, pgs. 598-611.
3.      T       1/11    Skeletal system K:Ch.2,18-31; M:Ch.2,9-26
                        In the text, Strength & Power in Sport by P.V. Komi
                                        read:
        Ch. 1. Basic Definitions for Exercise, pgs. 3-6
        Ch. 2C. Neuromuscular Basis of Stretching
                Exercises, pgs. 29-38
        Moore, M.A. & Hutton, R.S. (1980).  Electromyo-
                graphic investigation of muscle stretching techniques,
                Med Sci Sports Exer, 12(5), 322-329.
        Etnyre, B.R. & Abraham, L.D. (1988).  Antagonist
                muscle activity during stretching: a paradox re-
                assessed. Med Sci Sports Exer, 20(3), 285-289.
4.      R       1/13    Neuromuscular system    K:Ch.3,32-47, Ch.4,48-61
                        & Ch.5,62-77
5.      M       1/17    Neuromuscular system    In the text, Strength &
                        Power in Sport by P.V. Komi
                read:
        Ch. 3. Muscular Basis of Strength, pgs. 39-53.
        Ch. 2B. Motor Units, pgs. 21-28.
        Ch. 6A. Contractile Performance of Skeletal
                Muscle Fibres, pgs. 96-114.
        Ch. 6D. Elastic Potential of Muscle, pgs. 151-
                160.
        Ch. 9A. Neural Adaptation to Strength Training,
                                        pgs. 249-265.
6.      T       1/18    Neuromuscular system    M:Ch.12,375-395
7.      R       1/20    Neuromuscular system    Guissard, N., Duchateau,
        J. & Hainaut, K (1992).   EMG and mechanical changes during sprint
        starts at  different front block obliquities. Med Sci Sports Exer,
        24(11), 1257-1263.
8.      M       1/24    Neuromuscular system
9.      T       1/25    Resistance Training     K:Ch.6,78-101; K:Ch.7,102-113
                                ACSM Position Stand (1990) - The recommended
                quantity and quality of exercise for developing and
                maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in
                healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exer, 265-274.
10.     R       1/27    Resistance Training     In the text, Designing
                Resistance Training Programs by S.J. Fleck & W.J. Kraemer read:
                Ch. 1. Basic Principles of Resistance Training, pgs. 1-11.
                Ch. 2. Types of Strength Training, pgs. 14-46.
                Ch. 3. Individualizing Exercise Prescriptions in
                Resistance Training, pgs. 47-81.
                Ch. 4. Systems of Resistance Training, pgs. 85-101.
                Manning, R.J., Graves, J.E., Carpenter, D.M., Leggett,
                S.H. & Pollock, M.L. (1990).  Constant vs variable
                resistance knee extension training. Med Sci Sports
                Exer, 22(3), 397-401.
 
*  Kinesiology and Applied Anatomy (7th Ed.) by P.J. Rasch
#  Muscles Testing and Function (4th Ed.) by F.P. Kendall, E.K. McCreary
and P.G. Provance
 
LECTURE OUTLINE CONTINUED
DATE            TOPIC   READING ASSIGNMENT
11.     M       1/31    Muscle Mechanics        K:Ch.6,78-97
12.     T       2/1     Muscle Mechanics
13.     R       2/3     Muscle Mechanics
14.     M       2/7     EXAM #1  (Through Muscle Mechanics)
15.     T       2/8     Shoulder girdle K:Ch.8,117-135; M:Ch.7, 179-190;
                        M:Ch.8,282-293
16.     R       2/10    Shoulder girdle
17.     M       2/14    Shoulder joint  M:Ch.8,271-281;M:Ch.3,29-30,61-65,68
18.     T       2/15    Shoulder joint
19.     R       2/17    Elbow joint     K:Ch.9,136-150; M:Ch.8,262-270
20.     M       2/21    Wrist & Hand    K:Ch.10,151-168; M:Ch.8,245-261
21.     T       2/22    Wrist & Hand
22.     R       2/24    Thumb   M:Ch.8,237-244
23.     M       2/28    Trunk/Spine     K:Ch.11,169-192; M:Ch.6,131-146;
                        M:Ch.9,316-324  M:Ch.3,46-51,55,66-68
24.     T       3/1     EXAM #2 (Through Thumb)
        W       3/2     Last day to withdraw with a grade of "W"
25.     R       3/3     Hip joint       K:Ch.12,193-207; M:Ch.7,214-230
                                M:Ch.3,31-37,53,56-60
        F       3/4     Faculty Conference
26.     M       3/7     Hip joint musculature
27.     T       3/8     Knee joint      K:Ch.13,208-226; M:Ch.7,208-213
28.     R       3/10    Thigh musculature       M:Ch.3,38-45,54
29.     M       3/14    Ankle joint     K:Ch.14,227-244; M:Ch.7,198-207
30.     T       3/15    Foot    M:Ch.7,191-197
31.     R       3/17    Foot
32.     M       3/21    Great Toe
33.     T       3/22    Abdomen & Situps        K:Ch.11,177-183;
                        M:Ch.6,147-166; M:Ch.9,323-330
34.     R       3/24    Situps  M:Ch.6,167-176
35.     M       3/28    Posture M:Ch.4,69-118
36.     T       3/29    EXAM #3 (Through Situps)
37.     R       3/31    Posture M:Ch.5,119-129
38.     M       4/4     Gait    Norkin, P.K. & Levangie, P.K. (1992).
                        Ch. 14, Gait,  in Joint Structure & Function, 2nd Ed.
                        Philadelphia, F.A. Davis, pgs.448-480.
                        Vaughan, C.L., Davis, B.L. & O'Connor, J.C. (1992).
                        Ch. 2, The Three-Dimensional and Cyclic Nature of
                        Gait, in Dynamics of Human Gait.  Champaign, IL:
                        Human Kinetics, pgs. 7-12.
39.     T       4/5     Laboratory Exam
        W       4/6     Last day to withdraw with a grade of "WP" or "WF"
40.     R       4/7     Gait   -  PAPERS DUE IN CLASS AT 9:00 A.M.
                        Late Penalties 0:01 to  1:00 minute 5%
                        1:01 to 60:00 minutes   20%
                                60:01 to 480:00 minutes 50%
                                > 480:01 minutes        100%
41.     M       4/11    Running Norkin, P.K. & Levangie, P.K. (1992). Ch. 14,
                         Gait, in Joint Structure & Function, 2nd Ed.
                         Philadelphia, F.A. Davis, pgs. 485-486.
                        McClay, I.S., Lake, M.J. & Cavanagh, P.R. (1990).
                        Muscle Activity in Running, in P.R. Cavanagh
                        (Ed.), Biomechanics of Distance Running. Champaign,
                        IL: Human Kinetics, pgs. 165,166,171-186.
 
        *  Kinesiology and Applied Anatomy (7th Ed.) by P.J. Rasch
        #  Muscles Testing and Function (4th Ed.) by F.P. Kendall, E.K.
        McCreary and P.G. Provance
LECTURE OUTLINE CONTINUED
DATE            TOPIC   READING ASSIGNMENT
42.     T       4/12    Review & Evaluations
 
        T       4/19    FINAL EXAM   10:30 a.m.  - 1:00 p.m.  (COMPREHENSIVE)
 
 
************************************************************************************
 
LABORATORY OUTLINE
 
DATE    TOPIC           LOCATION
 
1/11            Skeletal System         MSC 105
 
1/18            Electromyography                FFH 122
 
1/25            Isokinetic Evaluation           FFH 122
 
2/1             Isokinetic Evaluation           FFH 122
 
2/8             Videotaping of Skill Activity           FFH 122
 
2/15            Shoulder Girdle         MSC 105
                Shoulder Joint
 
2/22            Elbow Joint             MSC 105
                Wrist Joint
 
3/1             Hand            MSC 105
                Thumb
 
3/8             Hip Joint               MSC 105
                Thigh Musculature
 
3/15            Knee Joint              MSC 105
                Thigh Musculature
 
3/22            Ankle Joint             MSC 105
                Foot and Toes
 
3/29            Skill Analysis & Posture                FFH 122
 
4/5             LAB EXAM                FFH 122
 
4/12            Final Exam Review               FFH 122
 
 
*************************************************************************
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
SPORTS MEDICINE 425
BIOMECHANICS of HUMAN MOVEMENT
WINTER, 1994
 
 
PROFESSOR:      Michael Feltner, Ph.D.
 
OFFICE:         Heritage Hall Hall 107
 
PHONE:          (310) 456-4312
 
OFFICE HOURS:   Tuesday         10:00 - 10:50   HH 107
                Wednesday       8:00 - 8:50  (by appointment)   HH 107
                                1:00 - 1:50     HH 107
                Thursday        10:00 - 10:50   MSC 100
Other times by appointment.  If I am not in my office (HH 107), then
check the Biomechanics/Motor Behavior Laboratory (FFH 122).
 
TEACHING ASSISTANT:  Craig Robinson
 
TEXTBOOKS:
 
        Fundamentals of Biomechanics by  Ozkaya, N. & Nordin, M. (1991).
New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold.
 
In addition, numerous scientific articles and supplemental readings will
be used.  You also will find your Anatomy  (SPME 230), Physics
(PHYS102), and Kinesiology (SPME 400) textbooks an excellent review
source, as well as  any mathematics textbooks that you may have (MATH
104 or MATH 210).
 
PREREQUISITES:  1. SPME 400 (Functional Anatomy & Kinesiology)
                2. PHYS 102 (Basic Physics I) with a grade of C- or better.
 
You must have completed these classes BEFORE enrolling in this course.
 
ATTENDANCE:     Unless you have a strong quantitative background and a
thorough understanding of  Newtonian Mechanics, an absence in this
course may be harmful to your grade.  Therefore, I strongly suggest that
you attend every class and laboratory session.
 
TIME & LOCATION: Lectures are scheduled for M, W and Th from 11:00 to
11:50 am in MSC 105.
 
                The laboratory sections will meet in FFH 122 on:
                        1.  M from 12:00 to 2:50 PM  (section .51)
                        2.  M from 3:00 to 5:50 PM (section .52)
 
"MUDDIEST POINT" CARDS:  At the end of each class period you may turn in
a 3" x 5" index card (make  certain that your name and the date are in
the upper right-hand corner).  On the card you are to respond to the
following - What was the "muddiest" point in todays lecture?  (In other
words, what idea/  concept/explanation is least clear to you?).  You
will be given 2-3 minutes at the end of class to complete  the cards and
turn them in before you leave.  I will read over the cards after every
class and return them to you at the  start of the next class period.
The cards determine my starting point for the next lecture -  major
points of confusion  will be discussed in class and individualized
questions will be addressed on the back of your cards.
 
The cards are graded by being turned in on a daily basis.  Therefore, if
you wish to have the muddiest point cards used  to compute your final
grade in the class (see the next section), make certain that you turn
them in daily!  If you have  no questions, then simply write "no
question" on the card and turn it in.  You MAY NOT reuse cards!  Even if
the  cards will not be used to compute your final grade, you may still
turn in cards on the days that you have questions.
 
GRADING:  In the semester, you will have two exams and a final
examination.  Each class builds upon the  material covered in the
previous class, and thus all exams may be thought of as being
comprehensive.   In addition  to the exams, your grade will be based
upon the other sources listed below.
 
                                                PERCENTAGE
   EXAM #1              19%
EXAM #2         19%
LAB ASSIGNMENTS           2%
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS    2%      or      2%      or      0%      or      0%
"MUDDIEST POINT CARDS"  2%      or      0%      or      2%      or      0%
FINAL EXAM      6%      or      8%      or      8%      or      10%
PAPER/PROJECT/PRESENTATION/GRADE REPORT 50%
        _______________________________________________
        TOTAL           100%
 
 
GRADING OPTION:  You have one option in determining your final grade in
the class: your homework  assignments and the "muddiest point" cards.
If you choose not to do one or both of them, the percentage weight of
the Final Exam will be increased by either 2% or 4%, respectively.  You
must tell me your choice by the time of  the last day of class -
4/13/93.
 
The final grade will be assigned according to the following percentile scores:
 
        93.5    -       100     A
        90.0    -       93.49   A-
        87.5    -       89.99   B+
        82.5    -       87.49   B
        80.0    -       82.49   B-
        77.5    -       79.99   C+
        72.5    -       77.49   C
        70.0    -       72.49   C-
        67.5    -       69.99   D+
        62.5    -       67.49   D
        60.0    -       62.49   D-
        59.99 or below  F
 
I reserve the right to adjust this scale downward at my own discretion.
At no point will the scale be increased or  made harder.
 
MAKEUP EXAMS:  In order to take a makeup exam,  I must be notified prior
to the class in which the exam  will be administered.  At this time, we
will work out the necessary details.  If this procedure is not followed,
you  will receive a 0 (ZERO) on the exam.
 
WITHDRAWAL:  The final date to withdraw from the class with a grade of W
is 3/2/94. The final date to withdraw from the class with a grade of WP
or WF  is 4/6/94.
 
If you withdraw from the class, notify me immediately.  You will receive
a grade of 0 for all work that is not  completed until I am notified
that you have dropped the class.  Any grades of 0 will be used to
compute your class  average and to determine your WP/WF status.
 
INCOMPLETES:  They will only be issued in the case of an extreme
emergency.
 
LATE ASSIGNMENTS:  They will not be accepted.  This includes the
Homework and Paper.
 
EXTRA CREDIT:  There is none.  No exceptions.
 
COURSE OUTLINE:  The tentative course outline is shown on the following
page.  The topics covered in class  may vary from those listed;
however, the dates of the examinations and the due dates for the various
aspects of the  paper/project assignment will not change!!!!
 
TENTATIVE LECTURE OUTLINE
 
        DAY     DATE    TOPIC   READING ASSIGNMENT
 
        1.      R       1/6     Introduction    Ch.1, 1-16
Cavanagh, P.R. (1990).  Biomechanics a
bridge builder among the sport sciences.
Med Sci Sports Exer, 22(5), 546-557.
        2.      M       1/10    Calculus-Derivatives    App. C, 371 - 380
        3.      W       1/12    Calculus-Integrals      App. C, 386-390
        4.      R       1/13    Vector Algebra  Ch. 2, 17-32
        5.      M       1/17    Linear Kinematics       Ch. 7, 133-138
                                        Ch. 8, 139-148; 151-153
        6.      W       1/19    Linear Kinematics
        7.      R       1/20    Uniform Motion  Ch. 8, 149; 153-54
        8.      M       1/24    Uniformly Accelerated Motion    Ch. 8,
150-151; 154-162
        9.      W       1/26    Application-Linear Kinematics
McDonald, C. & Dapena, J. (1991). Linear  kinematics of the mens 110m
and womens  100m hurdles races. Med Sci Sports Exer,  23(12), 1382-1391
        10.     R       1/27    Application-Linear Kinematics   Lafor
tune, M.A. (1991). Three-dimensional  acceleration of the tibia during
walking and  running.  J. Biomechanics. 24(10), 877- 886.
        11.     M       1/31    Linear Kinetics Ch. 3, 33-46; Ch. 5, 72-73
        12.     W       2/2     Linear Kinetics Ch. 10, 189-199; Ch. 12, 239-248
        13.     R       2/3     Application-Linear Kinetics     Harman,
E.A., Rosenstein, M.T., Frykman,  P.N. & Rosenstein, R.M. (1990). The
effects of arms and countermovement on  vertical jumping. Med Sci Sports
Exer,  22(6), 1825-833.
        14.     M       2/7     Angular Kinematics      Ch. 9, 163(skip
section 9.1)-168; 176-180;  187-188
        15.     W       2/9     Application-Angular Kinematics  Liu, Q.,
Hay, J.G. & Andrews, J.G. (1993).  Body roll and handpath in freestyle
swimming: an experimental study.  J.  Applied Biomechanics, 9, 238-253.
        16.     R       2/10    Application-Angular Kinematics & Linear
McNitt-Gray, J.L., Yokoi, T. & Millward, C.  Kinetics   (1993). Landing
strategy adjustments made  by female gymnasts in response to drop
height and mat composition J. Applied  Biomechanics, 9, 173-190.
        17.     M       2/14    Review
                        2/14    EXAM #1 in LAB
 
        18.     W       2/16    Angular Kinetics        Ch. 4, 47-65;
Ch. 5,  91-95
        19.     R       2/17    Angular Kinetics        Ch. 10, 200-208;
Ch. 12, 257-260
        20.     M2/21   Application-Angular & Linear Kinetics   Elliott,
B.C., Wilson, G.J. & Kerr, G.K. (1989)  A biomechanical analysis of the
sticking  region in the bench press.  Med Sci Sports  Exer, 21(4),
450-462.
        21.     W       2/23    Angular Momentum        Hay, J.G.,
Wilson, B.D., Dapena, J. &  Woodworth, G.G. (1977).  A computational
technique to determine the angular  momentum of a human body.  J.
Biomechanics, 10, 269-277.  Dapena, J.  (1978).  A method to determine
the  angular momentum of a human body about  three orthogonal axes
passing through its  center of gravity. J. Biomechanics, 11,251- 256.
 
 
        DAY     DATE    TOPIC   READING ASSIGNMENT
 
        22.     R       2/24    Angular Momentum        Herzog, W.
(1986). Maintenance of body  orientation in the flight phase of long
jumping.  Med Sci Sports Exer, 8(2), 231- 241.
        23.     M       2/28    Angular Momentum        McDonald, C. &
Dapena, J. (1991). Angular  momentum in the mens 110m and womens  100m
hurdles races. Med Sci Sports Exer,  23(12), 1382-1391.
        24.     W       3/2     Angular Momentum
                        Last day to withdraw with a grade of "W"
        25.     R       3/3     Angular Momentum       Frolich, C.
(1980). The physics of  somersaulting and twisting. Scientific
American, 242(3), 154-165.
                        3/4     FACULTY CONFERENCE
        26.     M       3/7     Angular Momentum      Dapena, J.
(1980). Mechanics of rotation in  the fosbury-flop. Med Sci Sports Exer,
12  (1), 45-53.
        27.     W       3/9     Angular Momentum
        28.     R       3/10    Inverse Dynamics        Ch. 10, 208-213
                                Andrews, J.G.  (1974).  Biomechanical
analysis of human motion.  Kinesiology  IV. Washington, DC:  AAHPER.
Andrews, J.G. (1982). On the relationship between  resultant joint
torques and muscular activity.   Med Sci Sports Exer, 14 (5), 361-367.
        29.     M       3/14    Inverse Dynamics
        30.     W       3/15    Statics Ch. 5, 67-76; 81-88; 91-95
        31.     R       3/17    Inverse Dynamics        Mann, R.V.
(1981).  A kinetic analysis of  sprinting. Med Sci Sports Exer, 13 (5),
325-328.
        32.     M       3/21    Review
                        3/21    EXAM #2 in LAB
 
        33.     W       3/23    Application - Inverse Dynamics  Bobbert,
M.F., Yeadon, M.R. & Nigg, B.N.  (1992). Mechanical analysis of the
landing  phase in heel-toe running.  J.  Biomechanics. 25(3), 223-234.
        34.     R       3/24    Application - Inverse Dynamics  Lander,
J.E., Simonton, R.L. & Giacobbe,  J.K.F. (1990).  The effectiveness of
weight- belts during the squat exercise. Med Sci  Sports Exer, 22 (1),
117-126.
        35.     M       3/28    Application - Inverse Dynamics  Feltner,
M. & Dapena, J. (1986).  Dynamics of  the shoulder and elbow joints of
the  throwing arm during a baseball pitch.  Int.  J. Sport Biomechanics,
2, 235-259.
        36.     W       3/30    Application - Inverse Dynamics
        37.     R       3/31    In Vivo Force Measurements      Komi,
P.V. (1992). Relevance of in vivo force  measurements to human
biomechanics.  J.  Biomechanics. 23(Suppl. 1), 23-34.
        38.     M       4/4     Work & Energy   Ch. 11, 215-236
        39.     W       4/6     Pole Vault - Energy Considerations
Hay, J.G. (1985).  The Biomechanics of Sports  Techniques, 3rd Ed.
Prentice-Hall:   Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 456-474.
                        Last day to withdraw with a grade of "WP" or "WF"
        40.     R       4/7     Fluid Mechanics Hay, J.G. (1985).  The
Biomechanics of Sports  Techniques, 3rd Ed.  Prentice-Hall:   Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 169-187.
                        4/8     Final Draft of Paper Due @ 11 a.m.
        41.     M       4/11    Fluid Mechanics To be announced
        42.     W       4/13    Review & Evaluations
 
        F       4/15    FINAL EXAM 10:30 a.m. - 1:00 pm
 
TENTATIVE LABORATORY OUTLINE
 
        DATE    TOPIC
 
        1/10    Project/Paper Discussion
        1/17    Microcomputer/Video Analysis System
        1/24    Videography & Data Capture
        1/31    Computer Graphics & Data Printout
        2/7     Force Plate - Jumping
        2/14    EXAM #1
        2/21    Force Plate - Running
        2/28    Force Plate - Center of Pressure
        3/7     Project
        3/14    Project
        3/21    EXAM #2
        3/28    Project
        4/4     Presentations
        4/11    DEAD WEEK - Final Exam Review
 
 
Michael Feltner
 
 
Dept. of Sports Medicine & Physical Ed.
Pepperdine University
Malibu, CA  90263  USA
 
mfeltner@pepperdine.edu
(Office) 310 456-4312
(FAX)    310 456-4426
 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
H P 2306 KINESIOLOGY
FALL 1994
 
 
INSTRUCTOR:     Duane Knudson, Ph.D.
OFFICE  118 Marrs McLean Gymnasium
PHONE:  755-3505
OFFICE HOURS:   10:00 MWF, 9:00 TR, and by appointment
 
 
COURSE DESCRIPTION:
 
The study of human movement based on the sciences of functional anatomy,
mechanics, and neuromuscular control.  The in-depth biomechanical
analysis of human movement provides an understanding of how movement is
created and how to qualitatively analyze (diagnose and correct) motor
skills and exercises.
 
PREREQUISITE:
 
PED 1420  Human Anatomy
 
TEXT:
 
Hall, S. J. (1991).  Basic Biomechanics.  Mosby - Year Book:  St. Louis.
 
COURSE GOALS:
 
To provide an understanding of how the human body and external forces
create human movement.
 
To provide biomechanical knowledge essential to the systematic analysis
of motor skills and exercise programs.
 
To provide experience in applying biomechanical knowledge in the analysis
of human movement in clinical and educational environments.
 
COURSE OBJECTIVES:
 
Demonstrate knowledge of how skeletal and muscle architecture interact to
create the forces and torques required for human movement.
 
Demonstrate knowledge of muscle mechanical characteristics and how they
are related to the coordination of human movement.
 
Demonstrate knowledge of the neuromuscular control of muscle force and
movement.
 
Demonstrate knowledge of kinematic variables in human movement, and to
apply kinematics in analyzing human movement.
 
Demonstrate knowledge of kinetics, and to apply principles of kinetics to
analyzing human movement.
 
Identify methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis in
biomechanics.
 
Apply the principles of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of
several fundamental movement patterns.
 
Complete a term project that synthesizes and critically evaluates the
professional and research literature on an issue related to the
biomechanics of human movement.
 
COURSE EVALUATION:
 
                3 Exams         60%
                Term Project    30%
                Personal Merit  10%
 
Letter grades will be assigned based on the university scale.  The
Baylor  attendance policy (no passing grade for more than 25%
absences) will be  enforced.  It is very important that you attend
class and absences around  0% are expected.  Three or fewer absences
will have no or even a  positive effect on your grade.  Four to seven
absences will  cause a 5% grade reduction in your final grade, and
eight to  eleven will cause one full 10% reduction in your final
grade.   The personal merit evaluation will be based on homework,
attendance, and  class participation (questions posed and questions
answered).  Any work  turned in late will have the grade reduced.
Make-up work is available  with PRIOR arrangements with the
instructor.
                A       =       90 - 100%
                B+      =       87 - 89%
                B       =       80 - 86%
                C+      =       77 - 79%
                C       =       70 - 76%
                D       =       60 - 69%
 
It is also very important that you keep up with the readings in the
text.  The text is easy to understand and provides excellent examples
and  diagrams that supplement the lecture material.  Examples and
exercises  from the text are often very similar to problems used in
exam questions.
 
The project can be a term paper, oral class presentation, research
report, or any assignment approved by the instructor.  The project
allows  the student to do in-depth study on a biomechanical topic of
personal  interest.  This assignment also provides an opportunity for
the student  to demonstrate an integration of the many areas of
knowledge that  comprise biomechanics.  A strong project can be very
helpful in  diminishing the impact of a poor performance on an
examination.  The term  project will be due December 2nd at the
beginning of class.  The  project will be graded based on the
following criteria and weightings:   Comprehensive Review of the
Literature (30%), Synthesis and Summary of  the Literature Reviewed
(30%), Adherence to the Format (20%), and Writing  and Paper
Presentation (20%).
 
MAIN TOPICS AND ASSOCIATED READINGS:
 
                                        Chapter(s)      Pages
Introduction to Biomechanics/Kinesiology        1       1 - 21
Basic Terminology and Mechanical Concepts       2       22 - 59
 
Anatomical Bases:
        Skeletal Architecture                     3     60 - 85
                                                  5     122 - 143
        Muscle Mechanics  & Neuromuscular Control
                                                 4      86 - 121
                                        Exam 1 (About October 3rd)
 
Biomechanical Bases:
        Kinematics (Motion Description)
                Linear Kinematics               9       252 - 287
                Angular Kinematics              10      288 - 315
 
        Kinetics (Causes of Motion)
                Linear Kinetics (Force & Newton's Laws)
                                                11      316 - 349
                                        Exam 2 (About November 14th)
                Angular Kinetics (Stability & CG)
                                                12-13   350 - 415
                Fluid Mechanics (Swimming & Projectiles)
                                                14      416 - 447
 
Biomechanical and Qualitative Analysis:         15      448 - 471
                                        Exam 3 (December 14th, 8:00
a.m.)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
>From jshih@scs.unr.edu Mon Sep 12 15:25:42 1994
 
Enclosed you will find the syllabus I used at University of Nevada, Reno.
I am also very interested in the survey you conduct. Please let me the
summary of your study.
 
                         University of Nevada, Reno
                College of Human and Community Sciences
        Department of Recreation, Physical Education and Dance
 
Course                  RPED 403 Kinesiology
 
Instructor
Jiping Shih, Ph. D.     Tel: (O) 784-4041       E-mail: jshih@scs.unr.edu
210 LR (Lombardi Recreation Building)
 
Purpose of the Course
To develop a fundamental understanding of the anatomical, neuromuscular,
and biomechanical principles of human movement. Application of these
concepts as well as methods of motion analysis covered in this course,
will enable one to evaluate human performance in greater detail.
 
Week            Chapter in Text
 
1st                             1
Part I
2nd                             2
3rd                             2 (Analysis I)
4th                             3
5th                             4,5
6th                             6,7
7th                             8
8th                             (Exam I);               9,10
Part II
9th                             9,10
10th                            9,10
11th                            13 (Analysis II)
12th                            13
13th                            11
14th                            11
15th                            12
16th                            12 (Exam II)
 
Course Content
 
I.      Introduction and Orientation
   1)   Forms of Motion.
   2)   Reference Planes and Axes of the Human Body.
 
II.     Applied Anatomy and Neuromuscular Function
   1)   Skeletal and muscular systems:
        Joints and Movements, Bones and Muscles.
   2)   Neuromuscular Function:
        Reflexes and Applications in Human Movement.
 
III.    Basic Mechanics
   1)   Terminology: Kinesiology, Biomechanics...
   2)   Vectors and Scalar.
 
IV.     Linear and Angular Kinematics
   1)   Linear Kinematics.
   2)   Angular Kinematics.
   3)   Film and Video Analyses.
   4)   Projectile Motion.
 
V.      Static
   1)   Center of Gravity
   2)   Stability and Equilibrium.
   3)   The Lever.
 
VI.     Linear and Angular Kinetics
   1)   Newton's three Laws.
   2)   Work Power and Energy.
   3)   Friction and Collision
   4)   Rotation in Kinetics.
 
VII.    Fluid Mechanics
   1)   Aerodynamics.
   2)   Magnus Effect.
 
Textbook
 
1.      Luttgens, K., H. Deutsch and N. Hamilton, Kinesiology: Scientific
Basis of Human Motion (8th Edition), Dubuque: W.C. Brown Communications,
Inc. 1992.
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
>From jchow@ux1.cso.uiuc.edu Tue Sep 13 15:17:37 1994
The following is the syllabus of the course I teach.  I have deleted
the grading policy, etc.  You can ignore those numbers (page numbers
for assigned readings) inside the square brackets.
 
 
            KINES 255 Biomechanical Analysis of Human Movement (3 hrs.)
                            Course Information
 
Lecture: 9:00 -- 9:50 a.m., Mon & Wed, 384 Armory
 
Laboratory/Discussion:   Group 1   9:00 -- 10:50 a.m.       Tue  130/241 Freer
                Group 2  12:00 noon -- 1:50 p.m.  Tue  121A/241 Freer
                Group 3  2:00 -- 3:50 p.m.        Tue  121A/241 Freer
 
 
Instructor:    John Chow, 241D Freer
 
Prerequsites: 1. CSB 234 Functional Human Anatomy (3 hrs.)
              2. PHYSL 103 Introduction to Human Physiology (4 hrs.)
              3. MATH 112 Algebra (3 hrs.)
 
Textbook: Hay, J.G. and J.G. Reid (1988) Anatomy, Mechanics, and Human
Motion (2nd ed.) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 
Course Purpose:     To introduce (i) the biological and mechanical
principles of human motion and (ii) the analyses of selected movement
skills.
 
 
      Monday                  Wednesday          Lab/Dis (Mon/Tue)
 
8/28 Orientation/Introduction                 8/31           Spatial
Terms  Algebra (Review) [1-2; T1-7]           [5-13]
 
9/5  Labor Day -- no class 9/7                Form of motion          No lab/dis
                           Linear Kinematics
                           [109-120]
 
9/12 Vector & scalars 9/14 Projectile motion  Trigonometry
     Uniformly acc. motion                    [124-132; T31-43]       [T515-519]
     [120-124; T22-31]
 
9/19 Projectile motion     9/21               Angular kinematics
1.  Projectile motion (1) [137-141]
 
9/26 Linear Kinetics       9/28               Linear kinetics
2. Projectile motion (2)
     [143-147]             [147-154]
 
10/3 Direct impact
10/5 Oblique impact (no spin)
3.   Linear kinetics
     [156-162]             [T86-93]
 
10/10                 Oblique impact (spin)
10/12                   Mid-term exam
4.   Elastic impact
     [162-169]
 
10/17                 Angular kinetics
10/19                   Center of gravity   Dis -- exam solution
     [179-186]             [186-200]
 
10/24                 Angular kinetics
10/26                   Fluid mechanics
5.   Center of gravity
     [201-213]             [220-232]
 
10/31                 Fluid mechanics
11/2                    Muscle mechanics    Mannikin assignment
                           [N60-172]
 
11/7 Locomotion
11/9 Locomotion
6. Locomotion
     [T396-402]            [T406-413]
 
11/14                 Jumping/Landing
11/16                   Jumping/Landing
7.   Jumping
     [N200-206]            [T424-433, 440-452]
 
 
11/21                 Throwing/Catching
11/23                   Rotations in the air
8.   Throwing
     [T202-214]            [T161-168]
 
11/28                 Swimming
11/30                 Qualitative analysis
9.   Angular momentum
     [T345-359]            [235-255]
 
12/5 Qualitative analysis
12/7               Course review &
10.  Demo: Qual. analysis
     [256-274]             evaluation
 
 
 
Supplementary Textbooks (Reserve Section, ALS Library)
 
T  Hay, J.G (1993) The Biomechanics of Sports Techniques (4th ed.)
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 
N  Enoka, R.M. (1988) Neuromechanical Basis of Kinesiology Champaign,
IL: Human Kinetics.
 
John Chow                                tel:(217)244-3987
Department of Kinesiology                fax:(217)244-7322
241D Louise Freer Hall                   e-mail:jchow@ux1.cso.uiuc.edu
960 S. Goodwin Ave., MC-052
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign
Urbana, IL 61801
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
>From CTRN@aol.com Tue Sep 13 23:08:30 1994
 
 
P.E. 350: KINESIOLOGY  FRESNO PACIFIC COLLEGE
Tentative Schedule   Bill Cockerham, Instructor
FALL 1994   453-2294 (school) or 456-0535 (home)
 
Date  Topic Text Assignment Project Due
Aug. 29 Introduction
 31 Critical Thinging Chapter 1
Sept. 2 Problem Solvling Appendix A
 
 5 Labor Day
 7 Terminology Appendix B Movement Selection (5)
 9 Basic Concepts Chapter 2
 
 12 Vectors Chapter 2
 14 Movement Analysis Chapter 15 Movement Description (10)
 16 Biomechanics Research Chapter 15
 
 19 Exam I
 21 Bone Function Chapter 3
 23 Bone Structure Chapter 3
 
 26 Muscle Properties Chapter 4 Literature Review (30)
 28 Muscle Organization Chapter 4
 30 Muscle Mechanics Chapter 4
 
Oct. 3 Joint Architecture Chapter 5 Drawings & ROM (25)
 5 Joint Flexibility Chapter 5
 7 Exam II
 
 10 Shoulder Biomechanics Chapter 6
 12 Elbow Biomechanics Chapter 6 Anat. Analysis-Skeletal (15)
 14 Wrist & Hand Biomech. Chapter 6
 
 17 Hip Biomechanics Chapter 7
 19 Knee Biomechanics Chapter 7
 21 Mid-Term Break
 
 24 Ankle & Foot  Biomech. Chapter 7
 26 Spine Biomechanics Chapter 8
 28 Pelvis Biomechanics Chapter 8
 
 31 Muscles of Back & Neck Chapter 8
Nov. 2 Exam III
 4 Linear Kinematics Chapter 9
 
 7 Projectiles Chapter 9 Anat. Analysis-Muscle (40)
 9 Constant Acceleration Chapter 9
 11 Angles Chapter 10
 
 14 Angular Kinematics I Chapter 10
 16 Angular Kinematics II Chapter 10
 18 Exam IV
 21 Newton's Laws Chapter 11
 23 Bodies in Contact Chapter 11 Mechanical Principles (20)
 25 Thanksgiving Break
 
 28 Work, Power, Energy Chapter 11
 30 Equilibrium Chapter 12
Dec. 2 Center of Gravity Chapter 12 Teaching Points (15)
 
 5 Stability & Balance Chapter 12
 7 Angular Kinetics Chapter 13
 9 Centripetal/Centrifugal Chapter 13
 
 12 Exam V  9:00 a.m. Final Project Due (40)
 
 
 
Physical Education 350: KINESIOLOGY - Course Outline
 
1. Catalog Description
 Bio-mechanics of human movement and the mechanical and muscular analysis
 of movement patterns.  The course is  designed for P.E. majors. The class
meets
 on Monday, Wednesday, Friday from 8:00 to 9:05 a.m. in room 807.
 Prerequisite:
 Biology 65, Human Anatomy.
 
2. Textbook
 Hall, Susan, Basic Biomechanics, Mosby, 1991..
 
3. Expectations and Objectives
 1. To gain an understanding of the anatomical and mechanical fundamentals
  of human motion.
 2. To be able to scientifically analyze human motion.
 3. To be able to apply anatomical and mechanical analysis to the learning
and   improvement of a broad spectrum of movement activities.
 
4. Methods of Evaluating Objectives
  Unit Exams (5 at 100 points) 500 points
  Term Project  200 points
  Assignments (inclass, homework, labs, groups)  approx.300 points
     ______________________
     Total = approx. 1,000 points
 
5. Grading Scale
  A = 90-100%
  B = 80-89%
  C = 70-79%
  D = 60-69%

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